jacquard A weaving process that creates patterns ranging from small (such as diamonds or dots) to large (geometrics or florals) in the fabric. A special loom, called a jacquard loom (invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in France in 1801), is used to weave the intricate designs.
jade A semiprecious stone that refers to either of two minerals: nephrite or jadeite. Nephrite, found in China, Turkestan, Siberia and Alaska, is the more common and varies in color from white to leaf green. Jadeite, which is more rare, is found in Burma, Yunnan in Southern China, Tibet, Mexico and South America. It is lustrous, transparent to opaque. Colors range from white or greenish white to emerald green. This stone is associated with positive energies and believed to be a healing stone that promotes charity, modesty, wisdom, serenity and love.
jasper A dark green, semitranslucent to opaque form of semiprecious chalcedony (pronounced cal-sid-nee), a variety of quartz. Its name is derived from the Greek iaspis and is generally red or green. Jasper has a dull luster but takes a fine polish. It is commonly found in the regions of North Africa, Sicily, France, India, Venezuela and Germany, and is believed to help improve blood circulation and promote detoxification. Green jasper is associated with luck in monetary trades.
jersey knit A plain knit fabric made on a single set of knitting needles; all the knitted loops are pulled from the face side to the backside of the fabric so the two sides look different. Originally made of wool, and now made of many natural and man-made yarns, some are textured. Jersey fabric was first manufactured on the Channel Island of Jersey (off the coast of England) and was used for fishermen’s clothing.